Anesthesia for laparoscopy: a review
Laparoscopic surgery, also known as minimally invasive surgery (MIS), bands together a number of surgical techniques characterized by small incisions with the aid of a camera. This surgery method was first performed in 1901, but only began to grow in popularity in the 1980s with the advent of new technology, such as fiber optic cables and CO2 lasers. MIS has now become the standard of care for many abdominal surgeries.
Laparoscopic surgery offers many benefits to patients, such as shorter hospital stays, less pain, and smaller scars. In addition, this type of surgery often has a quicker recovery time than traditional surgery.
As with any surgery, the anesthesia plan is tailored to the individual patient and the procedure being performed. The anesthesiologist strives to maintain the patient's safety and comfort throughout the surgery.
Anesthesia for laparoscopic surgery
There are several types of anesthesia that can be used for laparoscopic surgery, each with its own benefits and risks. The type of anesthesia that will be used will be based on the type of surgery being performed, the patient's health, and the surgeon's preference.
The most common type of anesthesia used for laparoscopic surgery is general anesthesia, which is when the patient is put into a state of unconsciousness. This allows the surgeon to operate without the patient feeling any pain.
Other types of anesthesia that can be used for laparoscopic surgery include regional anesthesia, which numbs the area around the surgical site, and local anesthesia, which numbs a specific area.
Once the anesthesia has taken effect, the anesthesiologist will begin to administer the sedative. The type and amount of sedative is individualized for each patient, but the goal is to keep the patient relaxed and comfortable during the surgery. The anesthesiologist will continuously monitor the patient's vital signs and level of consciousness during the surgery.
Anesthesia considerations for laparoscopic surgery
Due to the nature of laparoscopic surgery, there are some unique considerations that must be taken into account when administering anesthesia. For example, because the surgeon is operating through small incisions, there is a greater risk of anesthesia awareness, meaning the patient could wake up during the surgery.
After the surgery is completed, the anesthesiologist will slowly reverse the effects of the sedative and the patient will wake up in the recovery room. Most patients feel groggy and disoriented for a short time after the surgery. The anesthesiologist will closely monitor the patient during this time and provide any needed medications for pain relief or other side effects.